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Nonresident Travel Reports

All reports on this site are downloadable for no charge. Costs associated with each report pertain to hard copies ordered directly from ITRR and do not apply to downloaded information.


Statewide Nonresident Travel

RN 2014-3
Statewide Nonresident Travel Survey: Survey Methods & Data Analysis
Authors: Kara Grau, M.S.
March, 2014, 10pp.
The Statewide Nonresident Travel Survey is conducted throughout Montana, and the resulting data are analyzed and made available to the public on the ITRR website on a quarterly basis. Statewide visitation and traveler spending estimates, as well as an analysis of the contribution of nonresident travel to Montana's economy, are published annually. This research note provides information regarding the survey methods and data analysis process.

RR 2013-16
Vacation Planning and Route Choice
Authors: Christine Oschell, Ph.D.
December, 2013, 46pp.
The purpose of this study was to understand the time frame in which decisions are made for vacations and more specifically decisions about driving routes during vacations in Montana. This study examines what factors affect travel route decisions and what specific information sources influence them.

RR 2013-13
Nonresident Values of Montana's Natural Areas
Authors: Megan Tanner, M.S., Norma Nickerson, Ph.D., Elizabeth Covelli, Ph.D.
September 2013, 36pp.
Three quarters of nonresident vacationers to Montana are primarily attracted to characteristics of public lands such as national parks, mountains, forests, and open space. Viewing and recreating on Montana's public lands are vitally important to the success of the travel industry in the state. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess public land values held by nonresident visitors to Montana and to compare values between groups of outdoor recreation participants.

RR 2013-12
Montana Travel Corridors:The Driving Routes of Nonresident Visitors based on Overnight Location and State Entry Point
Author: Christine Oschell, Ph.D.
October 2013, 103pp.
With nonresident visitors to Montana traveling throughout the state, an important area of research is an examination of where these visitors spend their nights and, subsequently, where they travel in between communities. The purpose of this report is to provide an examination of different travel routes visitors took between communities in Montana and the characteristics of the visitors associated with these routes.

RR 2013-11
Visitor Comments About Montana: 2012 Nonresident Survey
Authors: Norma P. Nickerson, Ashley Napier, Doris Cooley
August 2013, 108pp.
This report provides an analysis of comments written by nonresident visitors to Montana in 2012.  Eight general themes emerged from the comments.  Nonresident visitors generally love Montana.  Their experiences were positive, they enjoyed the scenery, open space, the friendly people, and they want to return.  Full listing of all comments are provided in the appendix.

 RR 2012-2
Visitor Comments About Montana: 2009-2010 Nonresident Survey
Authors: Jake Jorgenson, Norma P. Nickerson, Laura Love
February 2012, 135pp.
This report provides all the comments written by nonresident visitors to Montana.  The comments, categorized into eight themes, include positive comments; travel issues; negative comments; activities; public and private land use management; attractions; specific purpose, and; comments about living in Montana.  The majority of comments were about positive experiences visitors had in Montana.   

RR 2011-2
Montana Nonresident Visitor Information Center Use
Authors: Neala Fugere, Christine Oschell, Norma P. Nickerson
August 2011, 26pp.
This report highlights findings of a study aimed at determining the effectiveness and future development of visitor information centers in Montana; in particular, understanding nonresident travelers' preferences for VICs as they relate to traveler behavior and spending in the state.

RR 2009-6
First and Subsequent Visits to Montana: A Behavioral Analysis
Authors: Norma P. Nickerson, Dylan Boyle
April 2009, 54pp.
Interviews of nonresident repeat vacationers to Montana told the story of their very first visit to Montana. Seventy percent came to Montana and visited either Yellowstone or Glacier National Park. Thirty percent came originally for business, VFR, or passing through. All of these visitors felt the need to return to Montana. This report discusses the first and subsequent visits to Montana.

TCR 2008-2
Expenditure Profiles and Marketing Responsiveness of Nonresident Visitor Groups to Montana
Authors: Lee Rademaker, Kara Grau
May 2008, 117pp., $25.00
This report looks at the expenditure profiles and the marketing responsiveness of nonresident travelers to Montana, and is based on data collected for the nonresident survey in 2005.  The goal of this information is to provide a detailed look at visitor groups including money spent by each group in Montana.  In addition to analyzing by visitor group, the report separates visitor groups by the quarter in which they visited Montana, state of residence, purpose of travel, and main Montana attraction.  Finally, readers can find information on expenditures by United States travel regions.

RR 2007-6
Connecting the Dots: Nonresident Vacationer Characteristics of Popular Travel Corridors
Authors: Christine Oschell, Lee Rademaker, Norma P. Nickerson
December 2007, 34pp., $13.00
This report highlights travel corridors and characteristics of Montana vacationers.  Seven distinct groups of people based on their entry and exit points to Montana emerged from the data.  Each group is described in terms of demographics, attractions to the state, activities engaged in while visiting and how many of each group visited Montana by quarter.

RR 2006-5
2001/2005 Nonresident Comparison: Visitor Profile
Authors: Norma Nickerson, Christine Oschell
September 2006, 12pp., $9.00
This summary report shows comparable data between the 2001 and 2005 nonresident visitors to Montana.

TCR 2005-1
2005 State of the Travel Industry in Montana
Authors: Norma Nickerson
March 2005, 6pp., $8.00
In response to the Governor’s Tourism Advisory Council meeting and discussion, February 2005 in Helena, Montana, the Institute for Tourism and Recreation Research explored available data related to Montana’s travel industry and the surrounding states. The report includes visitation for Montana and the U.S., rooms sold, travel expenditures and travel advertising comparisons.

RR 2003-1
The Montana Vacation Experience: Part 1
Authors: Norma Nickerson, J. Al Ellard, Robert Dvorak
January 2003, 63pp., $16.00
The Montana Vacation Experience is the analysis of in-depth interviews of 53 Montana vacationers. Part 1 provides direct quotes from vacationers in Montana related to their vacation experience. Five themes related to the vacation emerged: trip planning, experiences and activities, motivations, relationship to the environment, and impressions of Montana. Part 2 provides narrative summaries of the 53 interviews representing the researcher’s interpretation of the significant themes within each interview..

RR 2003-1a
The Montana Vacation Experience Part 2: Interview Summaries
Authors: Norma Nickerson, J. Al Ellard, Robert Dvorak
March 2003, 40pp., $13.00
Provides narrative summaries of the 53 interviews representing the researcher’s interpretation of the significant themes within each interview.

TR 2002-12
Nonresident All Year & Four Season Comparison: Visitor Profile
Authors: Norma Nickerson, Bethany Sutton, Abby Aronofsky
October 2002, 12pp., $9.00
Provides a summary of characteristics of nonresident visitors to Montana during all seasons of 2001. This report is a compilation of each season along with full year totals. This short report only provides frequency tables of demographics, trip characteristics, travel behavior and some expenditures in the state.

RR 2002-8
Nonresident FALL Visitor Profile: A study of Fall Visitors to Montana
Author: Norma Nickerson
July 2002, 20pp., $10.00
Provides an assessment of characteristics of nonresident fall visitors to Montana during the 2001 fall season. This report describes the fall visitor in terms of demographics, trip characteristics, travel behavior and expenditures in the state, as well as provides an updated estimate of economic impact of fall travelers in the state.

RR 2002-5
Nonresident SUMMER Visitor Profile: A study of Summer Visitors to Montana
Authors: Norma Nickerson, Thale Dillion
April 2002, 41pp., $13.00
Provides an assessment of characteristics of nonresident summer visitors to Montana during the 2001 summer season. This report describes the summer visitor in terms of demographics, trip characteristics, travel behavior and expenditures in the state, as well as provides an updated estimate of economic impact of summer travelers in the state.

RR 2002-2
Nonresident SPRING Visitor Profile: A study of Spring Visitors to Montana
Authors: Norma Nickerson, Thale Dillon
February 2002, 32 pp., $12.00
Provides an assessment of characteristics of nonresident spring visitors to Montana during the 2001 spring season. This report describes the spring visitor in terms of demographics, trip characteristics, travel behavior and expenditures in the state, as well as provides an updated estimate of economic impact of spring travelers in the state.

RR 2001-7
Nonresident WINTER Visitor Profile: A study of Winter Visitors to Montana
Authors: Norma Nickerson, Thale Dillon
December 2001, 25 pp., $12.00
Provides an assessment of characteristics of nonresident winter visitors to Montana during the 2000-2001 winter season. This report describes the winter visitor in terms of demographics, trip characteristics, travel behavior and expenditures in the state, as well as provides an updated estimate of economic impact of winter travelers in the state. The report also serves to update information gathered during ITRR's previous nonresident winter study in 1997-1998.

TCR 98-7
Visitors to Montana Counties: A Pilot Analysis for Madison and Lincoln Counties
Authors: Kristin Aldred Cheek
October 1998, 6 pp., $9.00
Pilot study to detemine the difficulty of estimating visitors' expenditures on the county level. Contains estimates of nonresident expenditures in Madison and Lincoln counties using statewide data from ITRR nonresident studies. This report provides a description of how those estimates can be made and identifies limitations and gaps in the data currently available from ITRR and other sources.

TCR 98-6
Expenditure Profiles and Marketing Responsiveness of Nonresident Visitor Groups to Montana
Authors: Kim McMahon and Kristin Aldred Cheek
September 1998, 71 pp., $18.00
Provides expenditure characteristics of nonresident visitors in Montana during the summer, winter, and shoulder seasons. Examines total expenditures by groups as well as distribution of expenditures by sector of spending. Travel groups are characterized by season of visit, primary reason for trip to Montana, area of travel groups residence, and primary recreation attraction to Montana. Also explores the issue of marketing responsiveness and provides a discussion on which groups are most likely to respond to promotional marketing and why.

RR 59
Winter Nonresident Travelers to Montana: Profiles and Characteristics
Authors: Kim McMahon, Kristin Aldred Cheek, Rita Black
August 1998, 80 pp., $19.00
Provides characteristics of winter travel groups to Montana during winter 1997-98 in terms of purposes of trip, attractions to the state, activity participation, expenditures, information sources, and other valuable information. The last section of the report contains winter travel marketing suggestions for the state.

RR 58
Nonresident Winter Visitor: Comments About Montana
Author: Paul L. Grant, M.S. July 1998, 35 pp., $12.00
Presents written comments of winter visitors to Montana. Use frequency of comment categories as well as summer comments vs. winter comments are examined.

TCR 98-5
Economic Impacts of Going-to-the-Sun Road Reconstruction: Montana and "Glacier Area" Impacts
Authors: Norma P. Nickerson, Ph.D. and Ross E. Nickerson
June 1998, 16 pp., $9.00
Estimates the potential economic impact of various reconstruction alternatives of the Going-to-the-Sun road in Glacier National Park. This study provides the information needed to make an informed decision about the alternative choices. Analysis of secondary data on Glacier National Park, vehicle movement in the park, and other travel statistics.

TCR 98-2
Nonresident Travel in Montana: Putting the Numbers into Context
Authors: Kristin Aldred Cheek and Rita Black
June 1998, 25 pp., $10.00
Provides nonresident travel's contribution to state taxes, as well as the role of nonresident travel in the state's economy. Also provides impacts of a hypothetical 15 percent decrease in nonresident visitor expenditures.

TCR 98-1
A National Study of Domestic Travel: Results for Montana
Authors: Rita J. Black May 1998, 23 pp., $10.00
Analysis of Secondary Data from the American Travel Survey Conducted by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Washington, DC A nationwide survey of approximately 80,000 households was conducted to document domestic travel patterns of Americans for an entire year. The survey was designed to record travel involving only the travelers' destinations. The data for each state were classified into three areas: nonresidents traveling to each state, each state's residents traveling within their state, and each state's residents traveling out-of-state. The results for Montana are presented in this report, and comparisons to ITRR nonresident data are made.

RR55
Nonresident Summer Travelers to Montana: Tourism Region Report
Authors: Josie Parrish and Norma Nickerson
April 1998, 58 pp., $15.00
Analysis of nonresident summer travelers to Montana. Examines travel on statewide and regional highway segments, points of entry into Montana, activity participation and number of nights spent by travelers in each region. Appendix B provides regional comparisons. ***NOTE*** when viewing this file, pages 4 through 10 may be slow to display as they are large files...please be patient!

RR52
Nonresident Summer Travelers to Montana: Market Profiles
Authors: Josie Parrish, Norma Nickerson, and Kim McMahon
September 1997, 106 pp., $22.00
Results from the 1996 summer nonresident travel survey for all visitors, cultural visitors, Canadian visitors, and highway and air travelers. Report provides visitor characteristics based on type of traveler.

RR51
Nonresident Summer Travelers to Montana: Profiles and Characteristics
Authors: Josie Parrish, Norma Nickerson, and Kim McMahon
September 1997, 112 pp., $24.00
Results from the 1996 summer nonresident travel survey for all visitors as well as characterized by first time/repeat visitors, primary reason for trip to Montana, and type of travel group. Travel group characteristics, purpose of trip to Montana, attractions to Montana, length of stay and types of accommodations, information sources, activity participation, flexibility of travel plans, pre-trip planning, and demographics are provided for each type of traveler.

RR41
Travel Patterns of Nonresident Visitors to Montana: 1993
Author: Brian Maiorano
June 1995, 54 pp., $15.00
Presents results of the 1993 nonresident travel study. This report discusses major nonresident highway travel patterns within the state and the characteristics of the visitors who use those travel corridors.

RR40
1993 Nonresident Travel to Montana:
Characteristics of Visitors, by Season
Authors: Neal A. Christensen, Brian Maiorano, and Nancy Lee Menning
February 1995, 31 pp., $12.00
Presents results of the 1993 nonresident travel study. Characteristics are reported according to the season in which the visitor traveled to Montana. The report describes air and highway travelers in terms of demographics, purposes of visit, attractions, activity participation, and group expenditures statewide.

RN20
Market Segments of Vacationers to Montana: 1993
Author: Brian Maiorano
October 1994, 8 pp., $9.00
Summarizes characteristics of vacationers to Montana during 1993. Travelers are grouped based on the benefits sought through travel (solitude, excitement, etc.). Easygoing Explorers, Enthusiasts, Escapists, Adventurers, and Passive Players are described based on benefits sought, season of visit, common group characteristics, activity participation, and expenditures. Marketing tips are provided.

RR30
Fall Travel to Montana: Motivations and Images of Travelers, Inquirers, and Market Area Households (Project Report)
Authors: Nancy Lee Menning and Stephen F. McCool
June 1993, 47 pp., $15.00
Presents characteristics of fall travelers and residents from two market areas: Spokane, Washington and Regina, Saskatchewan. Emphasis is placed on benefits sought by fall travelers and the images current and potential travelers hold about Montana. (See TCR93-2.)

TCR93-2
Fall Travel to Montana: Motivations and Images of Travelers, Inquirers, and Market Area Households (Technical Report)
Authors: Nancy Lee Menning and Stephen F. McCool
June 1993, 66 pp., $16.00
Provides survey methodology, data analysis techniques, detailed results, and project evaluation for the 1991 study of fall travelers to Montana. (See RR30.)

RR29
Montana Travel and Tourism Statistics Sourcebook: 1980-1992
Author: Neal A. Christensen
June 1993, 38 pp., $13.00
Quarter by quarter statistics about the tourism industry in Montana. Includes highway traffic volume, airport deboardings, nonresident travel estimates, border crossings, Amtrak train deboardings, skier visits, National Park visits, accommodations tax revenues, and fuel tax revenues.

MOISEY92
Tourism in Montana: Travel Patterns, Activities, and Expenditures
Author: Neil Moisey
May 1992, 21 pp., $10.00
Geographical portrayal (by counties) of accommodations tax revenues, nonresident traveler participation in recreational activities, and distribution of traveler expenditures. (Not originally intended as an Institute publication but listed as available in the Journal of Travel Research.)

RR11
Estimates of Economic Impact of Nonresident Travelers
to Montana: A Technical Report
Authors: Neil Moisey and Michael Yuan
April 1990, 64 pp., $16.00
Details technical aspects of the use of IMPLAN to estimate economic impacts of nonresident travel to Montana between April 1988 and March 1989 as reported in RR7.

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Nonresident Travel Segments

RR 2009-3
Nonresident Travel Patterns Between Glacier and Yellowstone National Parks
Author: Norma P. Nickerson, Ph.D., Keith Bosak, Ph.D., Kyla Zaret
February, 2009, 25 pp.
Travel patterns of nonresidents who visited both Glacier and Yellowstone National Parks on their trip to Montana were analyzed for this study. Results showed a number of travel patterns emerged, but two patterns, the open loop and the linear patterns, were predominate. This report provides a discussion of travel patterns with detailed maps included.

RR 2002-10
The Montana Nonresident Visitor: A Comparison of Glacier, Yellowstone, and Non-Park Visitors
Author: Norma Nickerson
September 2002, 30 pp., $12.00
This report provides a profile of nonresident visitors to Montana who visited one or both of the national parks or neither park. It is based on a four-month study period from June through September of 2001 and describes visitors in terms of demographics, trip characteristics, travel behavior, visitor satisfaction and observation.

RR 2001-6
Montana Travel Region Visitors: A Pilot Study of Gold West Country Travel Region
Authors: Norma Nickerson, Jason Shreder
September 2001, 15 pp., $9.00
Pilot study to determine the effectiveness of an on-site regional survey for gathering information on summer visitors and their expenditure patterns. The objectives of the study were to determine the best survey instrument and methods to use at the regional level, and to describe visitors to the Gold West Travel Region in terms of demographics, trip characteristics, travel behavior and expenditures.

RR 75
Regional Nonresident Spending in Montana
Author: Kim McMahon
March 2000, 58 pp., $15.00
Analysis of 1998 nonresident travel spending in Montana for the counties of Cascade, Custer, Flathead, Gallatin, Lewis and Clark, Missoula, Richland, Silver Bow and Yellowstone. Also includes analysis of spending in Great Falls, Miles City, Kalispell, Bozeman, Helena, Missoula, Sidney, Butte, and Billings. Data includes total spending, distribution of spending by sector, length of stay in Montana, per capita spending, and summer trip characteristics of visitor age, travel group type, accommodations used, and visitor origin for each geographical location.

TCR 98-7
Visitors to Montana Counties: A Pilot Analysis for Madison and Lincoln Counties
Authors: Kristin Aldred Cheek
October 1998, 6 pp., $9.00
Pilot study to detemine the difficulty of estimating visitors' expenditures on the county level. Contains estimates of nonresident expenditures in Madison and Lincoln counties using statewide data from ITRR nonresident studies. This report provides a description of how those estimates can be made and identifies limitations and gaps in the data currently available from ITRR and other sources.

RR55
Nonresident Summer Travelers to Montana: Tourism Region Report
Authors: Josie Parrish and Norma Nickerson
April 1998, 58 pp., $15.00
Analysis of nonresident summer travelers to Montana. Examines travel on statewide and regional highway segments, points of entry into Montana, activity participation and number of nights spent by travelers in each region. Appendix B provides regional comparisons. ***NOTE*** when viewing this file, pages 4 through 10 may be slow to display as they are large files...please be patient!

TCR97-1
Economic Impact of Convention and Meetings in Montana:
Methodological Attempts
Authors: Rita J. Black and Paul L. Grant
May 1997, 8 pp., $9.00
Summary of methodological attempts and objectives for the study. The report also identifies information that would have been obtained had the study succeeded.

RN19
A Profile of Nonresident Travelers through Missoula: Winter 1993
Authors: Justin Harris, Nancy Lee Menning, and Neal A. Christensen
June 1994, 10 pp., $9.00
Describes travel characteristics of nonresident visitors to Montana who passed through, made expenditures, or stayed overnight in Missoula during the 1993 winter season. Characteristics are compared to statewide winter travel characteristics.

TCR94-1
The Motorcoach Tour Industry:
Total Direct Expenditures in Montana
Authors: Neal A. Christensen and Stephen F. McCool
February 1994, 9 pp., $9.00
Summarizes the characteristics and economic impacts of motorcoach travelers in 1991 and 1992.

TCR93-1
Nonresident Visitor Profile, Highway 93 Travelers:
Travel Patterns and Group Characteristics
Author: Neal A. Christensen
January 1993, 9 pp., $9.00
Presents information specific to nonresident travelers on Highway 93 between I-90 and Polson during the spring and summer of 1990.

RR17
Estimates of Travel-Related Economic Impacts and
Associated Visitor Characteristics in the Butte Area
Authors: Michael Yuan and Neil Moisey
December 1991, 82 pp., $19.00
Presents estimates of travel-related economic impacts and associated visitor characteristics in the Butte-Silver Bow area. Projects 1995 economic impacts assuming no major travel-related developments. Also projects economic impacts in 2000 and 2005 assuming development of a new major destination resort attraction in the Butte area.

TCR91-11
Teton County Nonresident Visitor Study, 1990:
Characteristics of the Sample
Authors: Neil Moisey and Michael Yuan
December 1991, 22 pp., $10.00
Provides information on nonresident travelers in Teton County during the spring and summer of 1990 including: socio-demographic profiles, trip purposes, accommodation stays, recreation patterns, and economic impacts. Assesses tourism as a potential for economic development.

TCR91-4
Travel and Tourism in Yellowstone County:
Toward Understanding Its Significance
Authors: Stephen F. McCool and Neal A. Christensen
May 1991, 19 pp., $10.00
Presents results which develop increased awareness of the significance of the travel, tourism, and recreation industry in Yellowstone County to provide direction for choosing alternative development, promotion, and planning options. Statewide trends as well as local travel statistics and characteristics are summarized.

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Ordering Instructions

To order publications, send a request by e-mail to itrr@forestry.umt.edu, or by regular mail to the Institute for Tourism and Recreation Research, 32 Campus Drive #1234, Missoula, MT 59812-1234. Include the publication number(s) that are listed in bold at the beginning of each description and enclose payment for the documents as listed. You can also call us with your request. Our telephone number is (406) 243-5686.

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